TGW Egress VPC Firewall Limitation Test Validation


This document demonstrates that native TGW does not support multi AZ deployment for a centralized egress firewall.

AWS TGW allows spoke VPCs to send Internet bound traffic through firewall instance deployed in attached egress VPC. However TGW is not aware of the state of each firewall in different AZ in the egress VPC, therefore not able to switch over to a different firewall instance when one fails.

Test Validation

The test setup is described in the following.

VPC1 is a Spoke VPC attached to TGW. There are three EC2 instances serving as Internet traffic sources.

VPC2 is an Egress VPC and has two Available Zones (AZs). Subnet_1 (private subnet) and Subnet_2 (public subnet) are in AZ_a. Subnet_3 (private subnet) and Subnet_4 (public subnet) are in AZ_b. Both AZs (Subnet_1 in AZ_a and Subnet_3 in AZ_b) are attached to the TGW. Subnet_1 is at the top of the TGW attachment list due to AZ_a is ahead of AZ_b in alphabetical order.

Each AZ has one PAN firewall. For PAN1, its eth1/1 interface is at Subnet_2 (public subnet) and its eth1/2 interface is at Subnet_1 (private subnet). For PAN2, its eth1/1 interface is at Subnet_4 (public subnet) and its eth1/2 interface is at Subnet_3.

Subnets’ VPC Route Tables (RTBL) are also displayed at the diagram.


The VPC1’s traffic will flow through TGW and PAN firewall before going to Internet. We verified the data path in different scenarios and observed the following behaviors:

1. With both Subnet_1 and Subnet_3 attached to TGW, TGW forwards VPC1’s Internet traffic from all three EC2 instances to PAN1. This is because PAN1’s private subnet (Subnet_1) is at the top of the TGW’s attachment list. TGW does not load balance traffic between the two PAN firewalls.

2. Stop PAN1 at AWS Console. VPC1’s Internet traffic is blocked. TGW does not detect PAN1’s health state and does not fail over to PAN2 accordingly.

  1. Restart PAN1 at AWS Console. VPC1’s Internet traffic will resume by going through PAN1.

4. Stop PAN1 at AWS Console again. To resume the VPC1’s traffic, we need to detach PAN1’s private subnet (Subnet_1) from TGW. After it, VPC1’s traffic can flow through TGW and PAN2 before going to Internet.

5. Restart PAN1 at AWS Console and re-attach PAN1’s private subnet (Subnet_1) to TGW. After it, VPC1’s traffic still flows through PAN2. TGW won’t redirect the traffic to PAN1.


Although TGW allows Internet bound traffic to be forwarded to firewall instances in an egress VPC, multi-AZ deployment for such firewall service is not supported.